You should allow until Nov. 1 to receive your Automatic Taxpayer Refund check or direct deposit. The initial Automatic Taxpayer Refunds are different from refunds issued due to overpayment of state income tax. If you are eligible for both refunds and there are no pending offsets or diversions under state law, you will receive a separate refund. You must file how to become a cybersecurity specialist updated for a 2022 Indiana resident tax return to claim the $200 Automatic Taxpayer Refund as a credit. If you were eligible for the initial $125 ATR, you will receive a one-time payment of $200 for the additional ATR. DOR provided information for almost 1.5 million taxpayers to the state’s banking institution for distribution to taxpayers’ bank accounts on Aug. 16.


How you receive your Automatic Taxpayer Refunds depends on information in your 2021 Indiana Individual Income Tax return. Your Automatic Taxpayer Refunds are separate from other payments or refunds you may receive from the state. There is an automatic process in place to send you a check if your direct deposit does not go through; you do not need to contact DOR or the Auditor of State’s Office. Biden said Friday that he had “no direct plans” to visit Saudi Arabia but may travel to the Middle East to visit Israel and Arab leaders.

A Fraction of ATR Localizes at the NE

Dimitrova D.S., Gilbert D.M. The spatial position and replication timing of chromosomal domains are both established in early G1 phase. Bermejo R., Doksani Y., Capra T., Katou Y.M., Tanaka H., Shirahige K., Foiani M. Top1- and Top2-mediated topological transitions at replication forks ensure fork progression and stability and prevent DNA damage checkpoint activation. Berchtold D., Piccolis M., Chiaruttini N., Riezman I., Riezman H., Roux A., best chart patterns for swing trading Walther T.C., Loewith R. Plasma membrane stress induces relocalization of Slm proteins and activation of TORC2 to promote sphingolipid synthesis. U2OS and IMR90 cells were treated with hypertonic medium and after 20 min. cells were processed for immuno-fluorescence using anti-ATR and DAPI . HeLa cells were incubated with DMSO or ATRi (3 μM; 2 hr) and treated with HU (10 mM; 1 hr) and then hypertonic media or hypotonic media , respectively.

Fahmy and Elatr said they did not receive a response after sending the letter to Biden’s chief of staff, Ron Klain, on Thursday nor after sending it to the president’s national security adviser and his deputy the following day. The Washington Examiner did not receive a response to multiple requests for comment on Elatr’s letter urging Biden to meet with her to discuss the release of political prisoners. As stated above, the recruitment of TopBP1 and the engagement of TopBP1 with ATR-ATRIP require multiple DNA damage sensors on both ssDNA and dsDNA.

It is still unclear whether the clamp directly activates ATR in vertebrates. However, it is clear that both TopBP1 in vertebrates and its ortholog Dpb11 in yeast stimulate the kinase activity of ATR-ATRIP even in the absence of DNA or other proteins (Kumagai et al. 2006; Mordes et al. 2008a,b; Navadgi-Patil and Burgers 2008). ATM, ATR, and other PIKKs all share a similar domain organization (Fig. 2A). The kinase domains of PIKKs are located near their carboxyl termini, and are flanked by the conserved FAT (FRAP-ATM-TRRAP) and FAT carboxy-terminal domains. Large amino terminal and internal regions of ATM and ATR are composed of numerous α-helical HEAT (Huntington-elongation factor 3-protein phosphatase 2A-TOR1) repeats .


The intracellular changes in GFP-ATR localization was examined in real-time with a gap of 30 s. The cells were fixed using 4% formadehyde and later stained for γH2X to examine the DNA damage state in the cell of interest. We first analyzed ATR distribution in response to osmotic stress, a potent inducer of mechanotransduction at cell membranes (Martins et al., 2012). Under hyperosmotic conditions, the cell and the nucleus shrink, causing NE ruffling and chromatin condensation (Martins et al., 2012).

Given that partially condensed silenced chromatin has a tendency to localize at the nuclear periphery , an ATR response regulating chromatin-lamin association in response to membrane stress might have important epigenetic implications. HeLa cells coexpressing GFP-ATR , mCherry-H2B were compressed with 30nN force using weights and the intracellular changes in GFP-ATR localization and chromatin architecture (m-cherry H2B) was examined with a gap of 10 min. Later the weights were removed to withdraw the forces exerted on the cells and again intracellular changes in GFP-ATR localization and chromatin architecture (m-cherry H2B) were recorded to examine the reversal in the ATR response and chromatin state. Confocal images of HeLa cells exposed to normal or hypertonic medium (0.5 M sorbitol; 20 min).

If your additional Automatic Taxpayer Refund direct deposit does not go through for any reason, you will receive a refund check from the Auditor of State’s Office. If you received your $125 Automatic Taxpayer Refund by direct deposit, you should receive another direct deposit for $200 ($400 if married filing jointly). As of Aug. 3, DOR issued over 1.5 million Automatic Taxpayer Refunds to over 2.1 million taxpayers, totaling over $254 million for the initial Automatic Taxpayer Refund. As of Aug.16, DOR has issued almost 1.5 million direct deposit refunds for the additional ATR totaling over $403 million.

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In addition to the core players in the ATR pathways, a long list of proteins has been shown to influence ATR signaling to various extents . For example, evidence for a possible cross talk between RNA-processing proteins and the DDR has surfaced from a number of genome-scale studies (Matsuoka et al. 2007; Paulsen et al. 2009; Hurov et al. 2010; Slabicki et al. 2010; Adamson et al. 2012). Intriguingly, the Cdc5L component of the Prp19 mRNA splicing complex was found to interact with ATR and regulate the phosphorylation of Chk1 and Rad17 (Zhang et al. 2009). Another interesting link has been made between the proapoptotic protein Bid and ATR activation. Bid interacts with both ATRIP and RPA and facilitates the accumulation of ATR-ATRIP on chromatin during replicative stress (Liu et al. 2011b). Understanding the mechanisms through which ATR signaling is regulated by these and other modulators may provide a more complete vision of the interplay between the ATR pathway and other cellular processes.

In addition to its potential clinical applications, the specific ATR inhibitors may facilitate the identification of ATR substrates and allow a better understanding of the distinct functions of ATM and ATR during the DDR. Thus, now is an exciting time for research on the ATM and ATR signaling pathways, and we are on the verge of making major breakthroughs in both basic and translational research. It is important to note that multiple additional layers of complexity have not yet been incorporated into the current models, and they have to be taken into account as we work toward a more complete understanding of the function and regulation of ATM and ATR. In the last few years, tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of the initiating events of the DDR. Although many of the key proteins involved in sensing and signaling DNA damage have been identified, new ones are still being discovered. Additionally, different types of posttranslational modifications have been implicated in coordinating the ordered assembly and disassembly of protein complexes during the DDR.

ATR Influences the Coordination between Chromatin Condensation and NEBD

Both ATM and ATR are activated by DNA damage and DNA replication stress, but their DNA-damage specificities are distinct and their functions are not redundant. Furthermore, ATM and ATR often work together to signal DNA damage and regulate downstream processes. Here, we will discuss the recent findings and current models of how ATM and ATR sense DNA damage, how they are activated by DNA damage, and how they function in concert to regulate the DDR. Whenever possible, married individuals who filed a joint tax return will receive either one additional refund of $400 by direct deposit from DOR or a $650 refund check from the Auditor of State’s Office. DOR will continue to issue ATRs by direct deposit whenever possible as individual tax returns are received and processed. DOR is unable to update banking information for taxpayers who changed bank accounts between refund periods.

Thus, as ssDNA is gradually lengthened during DSB resection, DSB ends switch from an ATM-activating mode to an ATR-activating mode. Consistent with this resection-driven ATM-to-ATR switch observed in vitro, two specific substrates of ATM and ATR, Chk2 and Chk1, are consecutively phosphorylated in cells after IR. Furthermore, enhancing DSB resection by overexpressing CtIP and Exo1 accelerates the ATM-to-ATR switch, whereas reduction of Exo1 levels delays the switch (Shiotani and Zou 2009; Tomimatsu et al. 2012). Interestingly, depletion 15 ridiculous paintings that sold for millions of dollars of CtIP delays the phosphorylation of RPA but not Chk1 by ATR, suggesting that the impact of removing different resection factors on ATR activation may be different (Kousholt et al. 2012). The activation of ATR by resected DSBs enables ATR to activate its effector kinase Chk1, which is critical for intra-S and G2/M checkpoint responses. It was also suggested that when DSBs arise at stalled DNA replication forks, Chk1 phosphorylates the recombinase Rad51 and promotes repair of the break through HR (Sorensen et al. 2005).

The DDR signaling pathway consists of a protein kinase cascade as well as mediator proteins that facilitate the phosphorylation events within the DDR network. The effectors of the DDR signaling pathway are substrates of the DDR kinases that participate in a wide spectrum of cellular processes important for genomic stability, such as DNA replication, DNA repair, and cell-cycle control. Although unique in the way through which it is activated, the DDR is a bona fide signal transduction pathway that is primarily driven by protein phosphorylation.


Cells were fixed and stained for anti-Lamin A and DAPI at represented time intervals postrelease. HeLa cells were treated with aphidicholine (3 μM; 16 hr) and stained with anti-ATR, -p-Chk1 Abs, and DAPI. Prophase cell stained with anti-ATRIP, -NUP153, -p-histone H3 Abs, and DAPI. ATR Relocalizes at the NE following Cell Stretching, Related to Figure 5A This is a time-lapse movie of an HeLa cell expressing GFP-ATR and RFP-Lamin A , following cell stretching through patch clamp .


Instead of a direct payment, you will receive a $200 credit toward any additional taxes owed or refund due. In this case, any additional amount received because of the credit would be included with your 2022 Indiana Individual Income tax refund. Please note that tax returns for 2022 will not be accepted until mid- to late-January 2023. The initial $125 Automatic Taxpayer Refund was first issued to individuals who filed a tax return and have listed direct deposit checking or savings information on their 2021 individual income tax return. One-time direct deposits of $125 ($250 if married filing jointly) arrived in bank accounts beginning in May and continued through July.

Furthermore, the function of MRN in ATM activation is stimulated by dsDNA in a length-dependent manner . Similar observations were also made in Xenopus and human cell extracts (You et al. 2007; Shiotani and Zou 2009). In Xenopus egg extracts, MRN and ATM not only bind to dsDNA ends but also dsDNA regions flanking the ends (You et al. 2007). In human cell extracts, ATM is not only activated by blunt dsDNA ends, but also by dsDNA ends with short single-stranded DNA overhangs . In the presence of short ssDNA overhangs, the junctions of ssDNA and dsDNA are critical for ATM activation. Together, these results suggest that, at DSBs, MRN recognizes dsDNA ends or dsDNA/ssDNA junctions and may move into flanking dsDNA regions to activate ATM.

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